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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 7  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 97-100

A study of occurrence and risk factors of age-related macular degeneration in a region of Central India

1 Department of Ophthalmology, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Science and Research Center, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India
2 Eye Center, Jan Jyoti Eye Hospital, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Archana Sunil Nikose
Department of Ophthalmology, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Science and Research Center, Nagpur, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jcor.jcor_87_17

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Purpose: The purpose of the study is to determine the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients aged >50 years and to study risk factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional prospective study, in which 907 patients aged 50 years and above of both sexes were studied who visited eye outpatient department of our tertiary hospital between October 2014 and September 2016. Visual acuity, slit-lamp examination, and disc and macular evaluation with 90D lens and 20D using indirect ophthalmoscope were performed. AMD was confirmed by doing fundus fluorescein angiography. Association of AMD with hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index were studied. Results: Out of 907 patients, 21 had AMD, i.e., the occurrence was 2.3%. Of 21 patients, 15 had early AMD (1.6%) and 6 had late AMD (0.7%). The highest occurrence of 9.75% was seen in age group of 80 years and above, whereas other risk factors of AMD, i.e., smoking showed P = 0.1261, cardiovascular disease P = 0.0251, and prior cataract surgery with P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Age was found to be strong and consistent risk factor of AMD. Smoking, cardiovascular disease, and prior cataract surgery were significantly associated with AMD.

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